The Angel of the Lord in the New Testament

The New Testament seems relatively silent about the Angel of the LORD when compared to the Old Testament. The phrases “angel of the Lord” or “angel of God” almost always refer to created angels (Matt 1:20, 24; 2:13, 19; Matt 28:2; Luke 1:11; 2:9; 12:7, 23; Acts 5:19; 8:26; 10:3-7, 22; 11:13-14; 12:7-11; 12:23; 27:23 ). Nevertheless, New Testament authors and characters do indeed quote from passages in the Old Testament where the Angel of the LORD appears and definitely do refer to Him.

The best way to identify references to the Angel of the LORD in the New Testament is by a careful examination of Old Testament backgrounds of New Testament contexts. The Gospels, generally speaking, begin where the Old Testament left off—with a focus on the forerunner who would precede the Angel of the Covenant (Mal 3:1; 4:6). The following outline provides certain themes in the Gospels as well as individual passages that identify the Angel of the LORD/Angel of the Covenant as Jesus Christ:

I. The Angel of the LORD in the Gospels

A. The Angel of the Covenant
B. The Theophanic Cloud in the Gospels and Acts
C. The Absolute “I AM” sayings

II. The Angel of the LORD in Acts and the Epistles

A. The Angel in Acts 7
B. Christ in 1 Corinthians 10:1-10
C. The Angel of God in Galatians 4:14
D. Christ in 1 Peter 3:20
E. Jesus in Jude 1:4-5

III. The Angel of the LORD in Revelation

A. The Priestly Angel of Revelation 8
A. The Mighty Angel of Revelation 10
B. The “One who is” of Revelation 16:5

The Gospel writers emphasize the fact that Jesus Christ is the Angel of the Covenant, but not in so many words. They do so by introducing Him immediately after highlighting His forerunner, John the Baptist (Isa 40:3-6; Mal. 3:1; Matt 3:3; Mark 1:3; Luke 3:4; John 1:23). Malachi and Isaiah both prophesied of a forerunner who would precede the coming of the LORD, and Malachi specifically identified the Lord as the Angel/Messenger of the Covenant (Mal 2:17-3:1). Chronologically, the identification of John the Baptist as the forerunner to the Angel/Messenger of the Covenant was given first by Gabriel (Luke 1:16-17). Zacharias later affirmed it (Luke 1:76), John the Baptist preached it (John 1:23), and Jesus Himself certified it (Matt 11:7-19; Luke 7:24-30). In doing so, they all implied that Jesus was indeed the Messenger/Angel of the Covenant (Mal 3:1).

The Gospel writers also show Jesus Christ as the Angel of the LORD by showing His association with the Shekinah cloud in His transfiguration and His ascension (Mark 9:1-13; Matt 17:1-13; Luke 9:28-36; Acts 1:9). In the Old Testament the Angel of God is seen in union with the cloud during the Exodus from Egypt (13:20-21; 14:19-24). The cloud continues with them, and when Moses meets with Yahweh at the tent of meeting, the cloud stands over the tabernacle and comes down over its entrance (Ex 33:9-11). In the Transfiguration account, it is the cloud that both overshadows and envelops Jesus while He is being transfigured (see Luke 9:34), and it is a cloud that “receives” Him in the ascension (Acts 1:9).

Another theme identifying Jesus as the Angel of the LORD is Jesus’ repeated use of “I AM” (Gr. ego eimi) as a means of identifying himself as deity. It was this very phrase which the Angel of the LORD revealed as His Name to Moses at the Burning Bush (Exodus 3:14). Although the translation of this Greek phrase varies in its different contexts, Jesus used these words on a number of occasions to identify Himself. What is more, His very identity is at the heart of the plot in the narratives in which the phrase appears. These are sometimes called the “Absolute ‘I AM’ sayings,” because they do not contain a predicate at all (such as “I am the bread of life” or “I am the good Shepherd.” These statements are clear indications that Christ is the Angel of the Lord.

1. John 4:26—Jesus identifies Himself as the Messiah with the words “I AM.”
2. John 6:20—Jesus identifies Himself to His disciples by saying “I AM” as He walks on the water (Matt 14:23-34; Mark 6:46-53).
3. John 8:24—Jesus uses the phrase “I AM” with reference to Himself, prompting the question, “Who are you?” (v.25).
4. John 8:28—Jesus prophesies that the Jews will know Him as “I AM” when they lift Him up (crucify Him).
5. John 8:58—Jesus claims that He preceded Abraham with the words, “Before Abraham was, I AM.” The Jews picked up stones to kill Him here because they knew He was identifying Himself as God.
6 John 13:19—Jesus prophesies of His own betrayal to His disciples so that when it comes to pass they might know Him as “I AM.”
7. John 18:5, 6—Jesus, identifying Himself to the soldiers who came to arrest Him, says “I AM,” and the soldiers all draw back and fall to the ground.
8. John 18:8—Jesus once again identifies Himself as “I AM.”

The repetition of this phrase in John’s Gospel in particular seems quite purposeful. It seems highly unlikely that John is recording these uses of the phrase “I AM” without the particular intent of highlighting them.

Stephen’s speech to the Sanhedrin in Acts 7 is a defense of Christianity to unbelieving Jews. In the very heart of his defense he refers to the Angel of Yahweh, identifying Him with Jehovah/Yahweh (kurios) (Acts 7:30-34). An observation of the pace of the entire speech demonstrates that Stephen slows down when he comes to the Angel of the LORD and deliberately describes His encounter with Moses at the burning bush (v.30-34). The detail Stephen includes about this particular incident shows the importance of this appearance of the Angel of the LORD to his defense. By identifying the Angel as the LORD (i.e., Yahweh/Jehovah), Stephen is demonstrating the fact that the Angel is indeed God. At the same time, Stephen points out the distinction between the Angel and God in verse 35, when he says that God sent Moses with the hand the Angel to help him (Acts 7:35). Among other things, Stephen’s defense is a bold defense of the Triune God, who had revealed Himself in Jesus Christ.

Paul further attests to the identity between Christ and the Angel of the Lord as he writes of Christ’s presence with the people in the wilderness wanderings. It was Christ, furthermore, who was particularly involved in the judgment of the people for their sins (1 Cor 10:1-11). Paul also places the phrase “angel of God” in apposition (an explanatory equivalent) to “Jesus Christ” in Galatians (4:14). In most English translations, this phrase is translated “an angel of God,” but it may also be translated “the Angel of God.” Remembering that the Greek text does not have capital letters makes this more of an interpretive decision, and the question is whether Paul intends to use the phrases climactically or synonymously. If it is climactic, then Paul is saying that the Galatians received him as an angel of God (which is good), even as Jesus Christ (which is better still).

Peter’s mention of Jesus’ preaching “in the spirit” to the spirits who are now in prison has been interpreted as a part of His Old Testament ministry as the Angel of the Lord (1 Peter 3:18-22). If the “spirits” in this passage are to be identified as the men who lived during Noah’s time, it would be natural to see the Angel of the LORD as the One who went to preach to them. Those “spirits,” of course, were joined with their bodies then, but Peter speaks of them as “spirits in prison” because as he speaks their bodies are not yet resurrected.

This passage suggests various interpretations, including that Christ preached through Noah by His Spirit (the Holy Spirit) and that Christ preached to the spirits of Noah’s day after the cross by entering hell before the resurrection. It is also possible to interpret Peter’s statement as referring to the Angel of the LORD’s preaching to the men living in Noah’s day. That He would be preaching to lost men during that time is not much different from appearing to Abram in Ur to call him out of Ur (cf. Gen 12:1-3; Acts 7:2).

Several passages in Revelation have been interpreted historically as the Angel of the LORD/Christ. Joseph Seiss argues that the priestly angelos in Revelation 8 has to be Christ because He has a censer of gold, from the holy of holies in heaven, and He casts fire to the earth (Luke 12:49-52). He also offers the prayers of the saints, which Seiss argues is “nowhere in the Scriptures assigned to angels proper, but is everywhere assigned to the Lord Jesus” (Eph 2:18; 3:12; Heb 13:15; 1 Pet 2:5; 1 John 2:1).

In Revelation 10-11 the angelos described has a face like the sun, which is reminiscent of the face of the Son of God in other places in Scripture (Rev 1:16; Matt 17:2; Acts 9:3; 26:13). He also has feet like pillars of fire which parallels other descriptions of Christ (Rev 1:15; Ex 14:24; Ezek 1:27; 8:2). His voice is like a lion’s roar (Rev 10:1), which reminds of the Lion of the Tribe of Judah and the voice of Yahweh in the Old Testament (Rev 5:5; cf. Rev 1:15; Jer 25:30; Hos 11:10; Amos 3:8).

The Angel’s granting of authority to the two witnesses is a further indication of His identity. As He describes the power and ministry of the two witnesses (“my two witnesses”), He details their power to turn water to blood and smite the earth with plagues. This investment of power directly parallels the Angel of the LORD’s investment of power in Moses to perform the plagues upon Egypt (Ex 4:1ff.).

In a final passage in Revelation 16, Christ orders the angel of the waters to pour out his bowl upon the rivers of the earth, turning them to blood. Upon completion of this act, the angel of the waters praises Christ.

This plague in Revelation 16:4-5 is reminiscent of Egypt’s first plague. The Angel of the LORD gave Moses the power to turn water from the Nile into blood as a sign to the children of Israel (Ex 4:9), and then He commanded Moses to turn the entire river into blood as the first plague in Egypt (Ex 7:17-21). Thus, just as the Angel of the LORD executed judgment on Egypt in the Old Testament, Christ will execute judgment on the entire world in the Tribulation. The parallels are striking.

Perhaps the greatest lesson from this study of the Angel of the Lord is the continuity between the Old and the New Testaments. The continuity is seen as a divine Agent intervenes in human history on behalf of His people because of His relationship with them. Believers should recognize that divine authorship of the Scriptures presents a unified testimony to the divine Mediator between God and man.

For a more detailed explanation of these passages, email me at huffstutlers@gmail.com.

The Ministry of the Angel of the LORD from the Period of the Judges to the Post-Exilic Period

(This article is a continuation of a previous post. For a fuller exposition of these passages, see my dissertation.)

Many writers and commentators agree that the Angel of the LORD described in the book of Judges is the same as the Angel of the LORD in the books of Moses and Joshua. Not all would agree that His ministry continues beyond the period of the Judges. Nevertheless, the Biblical evidence indicates that His ministry indeed continues. His identity is so well established, moreover, that even the common people (i.e., not just the leaders and prophets) speak of His divine identity and attributes (Jdg 6, 13; 2 Sam 14:17, 20; 19:27). During and after the period of the Judges, the involvement of the Angel of the LORD in the history of the nation continues in His calling of leaders, His establishment of the temple location, His protection of Jerusalem, His deliverance of individuals and His judging of idolatry. In addition, the prophets continue to speak of the Angel of the LORD both in terms of their history and their future as a nation. The remainder of this article presents both an outline and commentary on the passages in which the Angel of the LORD is mentioned explicitly and passages where there are strong indications that the Angel of the LORD is present.

C.       The Angel of the LORD from the period of the Judges to the establishment of the Temple at Jerusalem

  1. The Angel of the LORD judges Israel at Bochim (Jdg 2:1-5)
  2. The Angel of the LORD commands Israel to curse Meroz (Jdg 5:23)
  3. The Angel of the LORD calls Gideon (Jdg 6:11-24)
  4. The Angel of the LORD appears to Samson’s parents (Jdg 13:1-24)
  5. The LORD calls Samuel to the prophetic ministry (1 Sam 3)
  6. The Angel of God is described by common Israelites (2 Sam 14:17, 20; 19:27)
  7. The Angel of the LORD establishes the location of the “House of God” at Jerusalem (2 Sam 24; 1 Chron 21)

    As He had indicated in the book of the covenant (Exodus 23:20-23), God promised that His Angel would go with the people into the Promised Land. The presence of the Angel of the LORD (Captain of the LORD’s Host, Josh 5:23-25) with Joshua and Israel at the beginning of their military operations is complemented by His holding the people to account at the end of their campaign (Jdg 2:1-5). This brief passage shows His active and leading role in the life of the nation by detailing His movement from the temporary capital of Israel at Gilgal to a place of weeping (the meaning of the Hebrew word bochim) and by recording His rebuke of the people. In His rebuke, the Angel of the LORD Himself claims responsibility for leadership in the Exodus and declares the guilt of the people in disobeying Him personally (v.2). The sacrifice offered to Him at Bochim additionally emphasizes His identity as the God of Israel (Jdg 2:5). In Deborah’s song, which records the events of the Israel’s victory over Sisera, the Angel of the LORD directs Israel to curse a city called Meroz for failing to aid Israel in a battle against its enemies. This instruction further demonstrates the role of the Angel of the LORD as divine Judge (v.23; comp. Gen 18:25). A more familiar passage is the call of Gideon by the Angel of the LORD (Jdg 6). The narrator identifies Him as the LORD early in the narrative (v.14), and Gideon’s suspicion that He is indeed the LORD is proven true after he offers a sacrifice to Him and watches Him disappear. Knowing that He has seen the Angel of the LORD (i.e., the LORD), he believes he is going to die (v.22). After the LORD proclaims peace to him, Gideon builds a memorial altar for the appearance of God and names it “Jehovah-Shalom,” the LORD is peace. The Angel of the LORD also appears to the parents of Samson to give them instructions about the birth and life of this judge of Israel. At the end of this narrative, the Angel of the LORD again receives sacrifice from Samson’s father Manoah, and once again He is recognized as God (v.22).

    Careful attention to the call narrative of Samuel in 1 Samuel 3 indicates the personal presence of the LORD in the tabernacle on the night He called Samuel to service. Verse 10 says that the LORD “came and stood, as at other times,” and spoke to him. In addition, verse 21 indicates that the LORD indeed appeared in Shiloh and revealed Himself “by the Word of the LORD.” Although the phrase “Word of the LORD” in the Old Testament refers frequently to abstract communication from God, it may also refer to the personal “Word of the LORD,” a name that is linked to the Angel of the LORD. (Compare Gen 5:1; Gen 32:28; 1 Kgs 18:31; Hos 12:2-6; see also Jer 1:4, 9.)

    A very significant act of the Angel of the LORD in the history of Israel and the Old Testament is His establishment of the location of the temple of the LORD. In this dramatic series of events, the Angel of the LORD executes judgment upon the nation after David numbers the people (2 Sam 24; 1 Chron 21), and then He appears to David at the threshing floor of Ornan on Mount Moriah in Jerusalem (2 Sam 24; 1 Chron 21; see also Gen 22:2, 9). David offers sacrifice to Him, and declares the location to be the “house of the LORD God” and the altar he builds as the “altar of the burnt offering of Israel” (2 Chron 22:1). Solomon later builds the temple on this very spot (2 Chron 3:1), further indicating that Jerusalem is to be Israel’s place of worship.

    D.       The Angel of the LORD in the period of the Divided Kingdom

    1. The Angel of the LORD strengthens Elijah (1 Kgs 19:4-8)
    2. The Angel of the LORD confronts Ahaziah’s idolatry (2 Kgs 1:1-17)
    3. The Angel of the LORD defends Jerusalem (Isa 37; 2 Kgs 19; 2 Chron 32)
    4. Hosea prophesies of the Angel named Jehovah, the God of Hosts (Hos 12:2-6)
    5. Isaiah prophesies of the Angel of His [Jehovah’s] Presence (Isa 63:9)

    The division of the kingdom of Israel during the days of Rehoboam did not discontinue the ministry of the Angel of the LORD to either the northern or the southern kingdom. His ministry to the northern kingdom is evident from His ministry to Elijah the prophet (1 Kgs 19) and His judgment of Ahaziah for his idolatry (2 Kgs 1). In the days of Hezekiah, the Angel of the LORD also protected Jerusalem in the southern kingdom of Judah from Sennacherib and his armies. The three-fold repetition in the Biblical record of this event demonstrates the magnitude of this deliverance by the Angel of the LORD (Isa 37; 2 Kgs 19; 2 Chron 32).

    In addition to His activity in the life of the nation, the Angel of the LORD appears in prophecy during this period of the divided kingdom. Hosea from the northern kingdom and Isaiah from the southern kingdom both speak of the Angel in terms of His historical ministry to the people of Israel. Isaiah identifies Him as the Angel of God’s Presence (lit., Angel of His Face) who led the nation out of Egypt (Isa 63), and Hosea identifies Him as the One with whom the patriarch Jacob wrestled. Isaiah’s title “Angel of His presence” indicates that the Angel mediates the presence of God with His people. When the Angel is present, God is present. Hosea also identifies the Angel as God, declaring that the Angel bears the memorial name of God, Jehovah. Indeed, He is Jehovah, God of hosts (Hos 12:5).

    E.       The Angel of the LORD in the Exilic and Post-Exilic Periods

    1. The Angel delivers the three Hebrew children (Dan 3)
    2. The Angel delivers Daniel (Dan 6)
    3. The Angel of the LORD intercedes for Jerusalem (Zech 1:6-7)
    4. The LORD who dwells in Israel’s midst (Zech 2:1-13)
    5. The Angel of the LORD cleanses Joshua the High Priest (Zech 3:1-10)
    6. The Angel of the LORD who went before Israel (Zech 12:8)
    7. The Angel of the Covenant who is coming (Mal 3:1)

    In the context of Isaiah’s prophecy, the designation “Angel of His presence” applies to the deliverance of Israel out of the land of Egypt. It may also be understood as a timeless description of His ministry to His people. The Angel of Jehovah’s presence did indeed rescue Israel from Egypt, but He also rescued the city of Jerusalem from Sennacherib. The same Angel of Jehovah who delivered the nation and the capital of the nation, delivered individual Israelites when they were exiled from the land. During the exilic period, the Angel of the LORD rescues Shadrach, Meshach and Abednego from the fiery furnace and Daniel from the lion’s den (Dan 6). In the account of the fiery furnace, Daniel details Nebuchadnezzar’s description of the One in the fire with the three Hebrew children (Dan 3:25) as well as Nebuchadnezzar’s word of praise for the God of Shadrach, Meschach and Abednego who sent His Angel to rescue them (Dan 3:28; compare Isa 43:2). The Angel was the Agent of their deliverance.  In an equally dramatic deliverance, Daniel declares that God had saved from the lions by sending His Angel (Dan 6:20), the same word recorded in the earlier deliverance narrative (Dan 3:28).The parallel narratives of deliverance suggest the possibility that this is indeed the same divine Angel who delivered the three Hebrew children.

    Following the exile of Israel, the Zechariah prophesied to encourage the people during their return to the land and the building of the temple. Zechariah’s prophecy shows the Angel of the LORD as initiating that return by interceding for Judah (Zech 1). Although the Angel of the LORD is not mentioned explicitly in chapter 2, the distinction between the two divine Persons named Jehovah has led many to suggest that Jehovah who is sent to dwell in the midst of Jerusalem is indeed the Angel of the LORD. In Zechariah 3 the Angel of the LORD cleanses the sins of Joshua the son of Jehozadak and installs him as the new high priest of Israel. A final reference in Zechariah directly identifies the Angel of the LORD as God (Zech 12:8). Concluding the Old Testament doctrine of the Angel of the LORD is Malachi’s prophecy of the Angel of the Covenant. Malachi prophesies that the Lord (Hebrew: Adonai), also identified as the Angel (Hebrew: malak) of the Covenant, will suddenly come to His temple and purify the people (Mal 3:1). Prior to His arrival at the temple, however, He will send a messenger before Him to prepare the people for His coming (Mal 3:1). This prophecy of a messenger, which the New Testament applies to John the Baptist, directly links the Angel of the LORD to the Messiah, Jesus Christ.

    The Ministry of the Angel of the LORD in the time of the Patriarchs and the Exodus

    One of the most fascinating subjects in the entire Bible is the person called the Angel of the LORD, also referred to as Angel of Yahweh or the Angel of Jehovah. He appears in every major period of Old Testament history, often at critical moments in the history of the nation. In addition to His appearances to the patriarchs, He appears to initiate the Exodus, to lead the Israelites into their first battle in the Promised Land, to establish the location of the temple in the time of David and to defend Israel against the powerful Sennacherib in the days of Hezekiah. Perhaps the most common question about the Angel of the LORD has to do with His identity. Who exactly is the Angel of the LORD? That question has intrigued many students of the Bible, and it is an important question for at least two reasons. First, it is important to understand who He is because the Biblical authors portray the Angel of the LORD as a person who is God and bears God’s name. This fact is apparent even from Genesis 16:7-14, particularly verse 13, where Moses as narrator refers to the Angel of the LORD as “the LORD” and then quotes Hagar, who calls Him El Roi, “the God who sees.” Another important reason for understanding the identity of the Angel of the LORD is that He sometimes speaks for God, or in God’s behalf. In Genesis 22:16, for example, the Angel of the LORD uses the prophetic formula “saith the LORD.” These two facts seem to militate against each other: the Angel of the LORD is indeed God, yet He speaks for God. These facts, however, do not at all contradict each other. Rather, they demonstrate that even in the pages of Genesis, the Holy Spirit is revealing that there is a Mediator between God and Man. But what about the word “Angel?” If the Angel of the LORD is God, why do biblical authors describe Him with the term “angel”? This is also an important question, and it is critical to understand the nature of the Hebrew word that is most commonly translated “angel” in our English Bible. The English word angel is the translation of the Hebrew word malak, and it may also be translated “messenger.” Depending on the context, the word malak may refer to a human being, a finite spiritual being (angel), or, in the case of the Angel of the LORD, a divine messenger. A good example of a passage in which the word refers to both human beings and angelic beings (finite spirits) is Genesis 32, where the “angels of God” met Jacob (v.1) and then Jacob sends his own messengers (same root word malak) to Esau (v.3, 7). The fact that the word may refer to a person who is human, angelic, or divine demonstrates that the word does not denote nature but function. That is, the word angel as it is used in the Old Testament describes what the person does, not what he is. This point is critical, particularly in the study of the Angel of the LORD. The Angel of the LORD is not by nature a finite, created being. Rather, He functions as the Messenger of God, the person of the Trinity whose function it is to communicate God’s will and word to man. The following outline and commentary focuses on the passages in which the Angel of the LORD appears or is men-tioned in the time of the Patriarchs and the Exodus and Wilderness Wanderings. Certain passages in the outline do not contain the phrase “Angel of the LORD,” but the absence of the phrase does not mean that the Angel of the LORD is not present. A study of the Bethel theophany in particular (Genesis 28), as well as other references to that theophany, demonstrates that the Angel of God (Genesis 31:11-13) is indeed the God of Bethel (Genesis 28; Hosea 12:2-6). As one studies the Angel of the LORD and the appearances of God (theophanies) in the Old Testament, he will see the wisdom of E.W. Hengstenberg’s assertion: “Wherever appearances of Jehovah are mentioned, we must conceive of them as effected by the mediation of His Angel.”

    A.  The Angel of the LORD in the time of the Patriarchs

    1. The Angel of the LORD appears to Hagar (Genesis 16:7-14)
    2. The LORD appears to Abraham and Sarah (Genesis 18-19)
    3. The Angel of God appears to Hagar and Ishmael (Genesis 21:14-21)
    4. The Angel of the LORD appears to Abraham and Isaac (Genesis 22:1-18)
    5. The Angel who went before Abraham’s servant (Genesis 24:7, 40)
    6. The God of Bethel and the Angel of God (Genesis 28; Genesis 31:1-13)
    7. The Divine Wrestler at Jabbok (Genesis 32:24-32; compare Hosea 12:2-6)
    8. God Almighty appears to Jacob at Bethel (Genesis 35:1-13)
    9. Jacob prays to the Redeeming Angel (Genesis 48:15-16)

    The first period in which the phrase “Angel of the LORD” appears in the pages of Scripture is the patriarchal period, the time of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob. In this period Moses consistently portrays the Angel of the LORD as Jehovah and God (Gen 16:13; 48:15-16). As He appears to different individuals in Genesis, the Angel of the LORD personally claims and exhibits divine power and prerogatives such as giving life and building nations (Gen 16:10; 21:18). He also claims to be the object of Abraham’s worship and the God of the patriarchs (Gen 22:10; 31:11-13). A careful reading of the dream theophany to Jacob at Bethel and the passages that refer to it demonstrates that the Angel is indeed God Almighty (Genesis 28:13; 31:11-13; 35:1-13; 48:3). Those who see the Angel memorialize the place where He appears by either naming the location, building an altar, or both. The Angel of the LORD thus receives the same honors as God Himself (Gen 12:7). In addition to the clear indications of the Angel’s deity, it is also possible to see in certain texts in Genesis the Angel of the LORD speaking as a prophet. In Genesis 22:16, for instance, the Angel of the LORD uses the phrase “saith the LORD,” a common phrase in the writings of Jeremiah and Ezekiel. Thus, although the Angel of the LORD is God and Jehovah, He also speaks for another person named Jehovah. One author aptly described the Angel of the LORD as the “paradigmatic Prophet” or the “Original of all the other prophet-messengers.” In other words, He was the original of which all of the other prophets were copies. In addition, this function of the Angel of the LORD as prophet is a foreshadowing of His ministry in the New Testament as the Word of God, the One who would bring God’s words to man. His function of speaking for God also clearly implies a plurality of persons named Jehovah, which is foundational to the Biblical doctrine of the Trinity.

    B.  The Angel of the LORD during the Exodus and the Wilderness Wanderings

    1. The Angel of the LORD appears to Moses in the burning bush (Ex 3:1-4:17)
    2. The Angel of God in the Shekinah cloud at the Red Sea (Ex 14:19-31)
    3. The Aid of the Covenant Angel promised to Israel (Ex 23:20-23)
    4. Reaffirmation of the aid of the Covenant Angel (Ex 32-33)
    5. The Angel who brought Israel out of Egypt (Num 20:16)
    6. The Angel of the LORD opposes Balak and Balaam (Num 22-24)
    7. Moses prays to “him who dwelt in the bush” (Deut 33:16)
    8. The Captain of the LORD’s Host appears to Joshua (Joshua 5:13-6:5)

    In Exodus 3-4 the Angel of the LORD appears in the burning bush to Moses, identifying Himself as the God of the patriarchs and showing His divine authority by calling Moses to lead Israel out of Egypt. He also reveals his name “I AM” to Moses, and invests Moses with miraculous power. By sending Moses directly to Pharaoh with a message to let His people go, the Angel of the LORD acts with sovereign authority over Pharaoh. Pharaoh’s hard-hearted resistance is met by punishment in the form of plagues or miracles which the Angel of the LORD told Moses that He would perform (Ex 3:20). As the children of Israel depart from Egypt, the Angel of God leads them triumphantly in the Shekinah cloud (Ex 13:21-22; Ex 14:19ff.). When the Egyptians approach Israel from behind, the Angel Himself protects and delivers them at the Red Sea (Ex 14:19ff.). After the Angel leads Israel to Sinai, the LORD enters into a covenant with His people, reaffirming His promise to the patriarchs to give them the land. He also promises to lead them by the agency of an Angel who bears His Name (Ex 23:20-23). As the covenant is ratified and the LORD gives instructions for His tabernacle so that He may dwell among them, Israel breaks the covenant by its idolatry (Ex 32). The LORD responds to this sin by telling Moses that He will send His Angel ahead of Israel instead of with them, but Moses intercedes for the people, and the LORD relents from His threat. He promises Moses that His presence (i.e., His Angel) will go with them (Ex 33:14). The fulfillment of the promise of the continuous presence of the Angel of the LORD with Israel is evident through the presence of the Shekinah cloud with them (Ex 40:36-38). The fulfillment of the promise of protection from Israel’s enemies in Exodus 23:20-23 is found in His opposition to Balaam and Balak in Numbers 22-24. The Angel of the LORD not only thwarts the plot of Balak, but He turns the curse of Balaam upon the Moabites and puts only blessings in Balaam’s mouth for Israel (Num 22-24). A final indication of the continuous presence of the Angel of the LORD with Israel is His appearance to Joshua on the eve of the battle of Jericho (Joshua 5-6). As the Angel appears to Joshua, He identifies himself as the Captain of the LORD’s host (army) and instructs Joshua concerning the strategy of the battle of Jericho (Josh 5:13-6).

    For a fuller exposition of each of these passages, please see my dissertation, available here.

    The Names of Jesus Christ

    “The very sound of His name gladdens the hearts of them that believe. He is called by a variety of names, to set forth that variety of excellencies which meet in Him.” John Fawcett, Christ Precious

    He is the Advocate (1 John 2:1)

    He is the Almighty (Rev 1:8)

    He is Alpha & Omega (Rev 1:8)

    He is the Amen (Rev 3:14)

    He is the Angel of the Covenant (Mal 3:1)

    He is the Apostle and High Priest of Our Profession (Heb 3:1)

    He is the Author and Finisher of our Faith (Heb 12:1-2)

    He is the Author of Life (Acts 3:15)

    He is the Author of Salvation (Heb 2:10)

    He is the Beginning and the End (Rev 22:13)

    He is the Beloved of God (Eph 1:6)

    He is the Branch (Isa 4:2; Zech 3:8)

    He is the Bread of God (John 6:33)

    He is the Bread of Life (John 6:35, 48)

    He is the Bridegroom (Luke 5:34)

    He is the Bright Morning Star (Rev 22:16)

    He is a Carpenter (Mark 6:3)

    He is the Chief Cornerstone (Eph 2:20; 1 Peter 2:6)

    He is the Chief Shepherd (1 Peter 5:4)

    He is the Christ (Matt 1:1)

    He is the Creator of All Things (Col 1:16-17; John 1:3)

    He is the Dayspring (Luke 1:78) “Sunrise”

    He is the Door (John 10:9)

    He is Faithful (Rev 19:11)

    He is the faithful Witness (Rev 1:5)

    He is the Father of Eternity (Isa 9:6) “Eternal Father”

    He is the First and Last (Rev 1:17, 22:13)

    He is the Firstborn from the dead (Rev 1:5)

    He is the Firstborn over all creation (Col 1:15)

    He is God (Hebrews 1:8)

    He is the Great God (Titus 2:13)

    He is the Good Shepherd (John 10:11, 14)

    He is the Great Shepherd (Heb 13:20)

    He is the Head of the Church (Eph 1:22)

    He is the Heir of all things (Heb 1:2)

    He is the High Priest (Heb 4:15)

    He is the Holy One (Acts 3:14)

    He is the “I AM” (John 8:58; Ex 3:14-15)

    He is the Image of the Invisible God (Heb 1:2)

    He is Immanuel (Matt 1:23) “God with us”

    He is the Judge of every man (Acts 10:42)

    He is the Just One (Acts 7:52) “righteous”

    He is the King of the Ages (1 Timothy 1:17) “King eternal”

    He is the King of Kings (Rev 19:16)

    He is the King of the Jews (Matt 27:37)

    He is the Lamb of God (John 1:29)

    He is the Life (John 14:6)

    He is the Light of the World (John 8:12; 9:5; 12:46)

    He is the Lion of the Tribe of Judah (Rev 5:5)

    He is the Lord (John 13:13)

    He is the Lord of All (Acts 10:36)

    He is the Lord of Glory (1 Cor 2:8)

    He is the Lord of lords (1 Tim 6:15; Rev 19:16)

    He is a Man of Sorrows (Isa 53:3)

    He is the Mediator between God and man (1 Tim 2:5)

    He is the Messenger/Angel of the Covenant (Mal 3:1)

    He is the Messiah (John 1:41) “Anointed One”

    He is the Mighty God (Isa 9:6)

    He is the Nazarene (Matt 2:23)

    He is the Only Begotten Son (John 3:16; 1 John 4:9)

    He is our Passover (1 Cor 5:7)

    He is the Prince of Peace (Isa 9:6)

    He is the Prophet (Deut 18:18; John 6:14; 7:40)

    He is the Propitiation for our sins (1 John 2:1)

    He is our Ransom (1 Tim 2:6)

    He is the Redeemer (Isa 44:6)

    He is the Resurrection and the Life (John 11:25)

    He is the Righteous (1 John 2:1)

    He is the Rock (1 Cor 10:4)

    He is the Root and Offspring of David (Rev 22:16)

    He is the Savior (Luke 2:11; Acts 5:31, 13:23; Titus 2:13)

    He is the Seed of the Woman (Gen 3:15)

    He is the Seed of Abraham (Gal 3:16, 19)

    He is the Servant (Acts 4:30)

    He is the Shepherd and Overseer of our Souls (1 Peter 2:25)

    He is the Son of the Blessed (Mark 14:62)

    He is the Son of David (Matthew 1:1, 9:27, 12:23)

    He is the Son of God (Mark 1:1)

    He is the Son of the Highest (Luke 1:32)

    He is the Son of Man (Matt 20:28)

    He is the Son of Mary (Mark 6:3)

    He is the Teacher (John 13:13)

    He is the Truth (John 14:6)

    He is True (Rev 19:11)

    He is the True Light (John 1:9)

    He is the True Vine (John 15:1)

    He is the The Way (John 14:6)

    He is the Wisdom (1 Cor. 1:24, 30)

    He is the Wonderful Counselor (Isa 9:6)

    He is the Word of God (John 1:1)

    He is Yahweh (John 12:37-41; Isa 6:1-13)